Christine Meeusen grew up as one of six children in a Catholic family. The general chapter includes in all cases the superior general, her counsellors, the secretary general, the treasurer general, and if the congregation is divided into provinces, the provincial superiors, and two delegates from each province, elected by the provincial chapter. Religious Orders and Communities serve the greater church in several ways. He is the author of "Hope for Hurting Singles: A Christian Guide to Overcoming Life's Challenges. In the thirteenth century, the Mendicant Orders appeared characterized by a more rigorous poverty, which excluded not only private property, but also the possession of certain kinds of property in common. Since the constitution "Conditae" of 8 December, 1900, and the Regulations of 28 June, 1901, we possess precise rules by which to distinguish the congregations governed by pontifical law. 5, 11 sqq.). The vow of poverty does not generally forbid the acquisition and retention of rights over property, but only its free use and disposal. For a long time the bishops had great latitude in approving new congregations, and gave canonical existence to various charitable institutions. (Cf. This article was transcribed for New Advent by Michael T. Barrett. Only the prelate or the ordinary can admit to the latter, but a consultative chapter is held, whose decision is announced by the superior. Since the Council of Trent (Sess. She may not resign her office except with the consent of the Sacred Congregation, which has the power to depose her. This sacrament is administered by the 'laying of hands', the candidate Deacons for Priesthood, kneel before the Bishop. On solemn profession, it becomes the property of the convent, which has, however, no right of alienation; it is returned as a matter of equity to a religious who enters another order, or to one who returns to the world and is in want. Besides the taking of the veil and simple profession there was also a solemn consecration of virginity which took place much later, at twenty-five years. Nuns, Sisters, Brothers, etc., are not, as some might think, ministers of the Church, because they have never received any of the Holy Orders. Since then the monastery of Kaskaskia has been suppressed. This visitation is made by the regular prelate in the case of monasteries dependent on a First Order; but the bishop has in all cases authority to insist on the maintenance of the enclosure, and to control the temporal administration; he also approves the confessors. New York: Robert Appleton Company. More recently, the decree "Quem ad modum" of 17 October, 1890, ordains that, without asking for any reason, a superior shall allow her subjects to confess to any priest among those authorized by the bishops, as often as they think it necessary for their spiritual necessities. Other rules followed, written by Basil of Caesarea (330-379), Benedict of Nursia (480-543), and Francis of Assisi (1181-1226). During this period, the religious keeps her property, but makes over the administration of it to any one she may choose. Some of the congregations are confined to one diocese, while others extend to several dioceses: in the latter case, each diocesan ordinary has under him the houses in his dioceses with power to authorize or suppress them. This strictness led to the foundation of pious associations called secular because they had no perpetual vows, and leading a common life intended for their own personal sanctification and the practice of charity, e.g. Please help support the mission of New Advent and get the full contents of this website as an instant download. From the time of the Mendicant Orders, founded specially for preaching and missionary work, there was a great difference between the orders of men and women, arising from the strict enclosure to which women were subjected. XXV De Reg., c. x), a confessor extraordinary should visit the monastery two or three times a year. "The Poor Clare Nuns constitute the second branch of the Franciscan Order, founded in the thirteenth century by Saint Clare under the inspiration and guidance of Saint Francis of Assisi. The order is involved in education and missionary work. The difficulty was sometimes avoided by having tertiary sisters, bound only by simple vows, and dispensed from the enclosure. (3) As regards their juridical condition, we distinguish (a) nuns properly so-called, having solemn vows with papal enclosure, whose homes are monasteries; (b) nuns belonging to the old approved orders with solemn vows, but taking only simple vows by special dispensation of the Holy See; (c) sisters with simple vows dependent on the Holy See; (d) sisters under diocesan government. Other monasteries allowed the nuns to go in and out. The word "order" designates an established civil body or corporation with a hierarchy, and ordination means legal incorporation into an order. ", XVI, 193). One who put on the religious habit, and lived for some time among the professed, was herself considered as professed. Some writers hold that the bishop is bound, before this profession, to make a fresh inquiry into the vocation of the novice, and this inquiry does not dispense from that which the Council of Trent prescribes before solemn profession (see the answer of 19 January, 1909; "Periodicade Religiosis", n. 317, vol. (b) The superior retains such power as is adapted to the vows and the necessities of community life. Imprimatur. In the absence of any other formal direction, the Holy See is understood to delegate to the bishop the annual visitation of monasteries immediately subject to the pope, to the exclusion of other superiors. In Gaul and Spain the novitiate lasted one year for the cloistered nuns and three years for the others. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/11164a.htm Learn Religions, Jan. 12, 2021, learnreligions.com/monastic-orders-of-monks-and-nuns-700047. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/11164a.htm. (e) Indulgences and spiritual privileges (among which may be reckoned the use of a special calendar) remain intact. For nearly three centuries the Holy See refused all approbation to convents bound by simple vows, and Urban VIII by his constitution "Pastoralis" of 31 May, 1631 abolished an English teaching congregation, founded by Mary Ward in 1609, which had simple vows and a superior general. St. Cyprian describes a virgin who had broken her vows as an adulteress ("Ep. This article was transcribed for New Advent by Michael T. Barrett. The obligation of this office, even choral, does not bind under pain of mortal sin, as the Holy See has declared for the Ursulines; whether it can be omitted without venial sin depends apparently upon the constitutions. The subjects are free to open their minds to their superiors but the later must not, directly or indirectly, demand or invite such confidence. [CDATA[ One of the first rules, or set of instructions for monks, was written by Augustine of Hippo (AD 354-430), a bishop of the early church in North Africa. The Holy See, by its Regulations (Normae) of 28 June, 1901, declares that it does not approve of congregations whose object is to render certain services in seminaries or colleges for male pupils, or to teach children or young people of both sexes; and it disapproves their undertaking the direct care of young infants, or lying-in women. Though some mitigations have been introduced partly by local usage, partly (in the case of certain convents in America) by express concession of the Holy See. Only the prelate or the ordinary can admit to the latter, but a consultative chapter is held, whose decision is announced by the superior. Regrettably, I can't reply to every letter, but I greatly appreciate your feedback — especially notifications about typographical errors and inappropriate ads. Before formally approving a congregation and its constitutions, the Holy See is accustomed to give its commendation first to the intentions of its founders and the purpose of the foundation, and then to the congregation itself. The vow of chastity creates only a prohibitory impediment to marriage. In general, what is a priest? The dismissal of a professed sister under perpetual vows must be ratified by the Holy See. In the regulations of 28 June, 1901, Art. This Order is dedicated to a life of prayer. Virgins vowed to the service of God, at first continued to live with their families, but as early as the end of the third century there were community houses known as partheuones; and certainly at the beginning of the same century the virgins formed a special class in the Church, receiving Holy Communion before the laity. Except in the case of a special privilege, like that which places the Daughters of Charity under the Superior General of the Priests of the Mission (see decree of 25 May, 1888) the Holy See no longer permits a bishop, or the delegate of a bishop, or the superior general of a congregation of men to be superior over a congregation of sisters. As to the laws by which they are governed, a great number of congregations, especially those devoted to the care of the sick in hospitals, follow the rule of St. Augustine and have special constitutions; others have only constitutions peculiar to themselves; others again form communities of tertiaries. With certain exceptions, the dowry of choir sisters cannot be dispensed with; it must be paid before the clothing, and invested in some safe and profitable manner. At the head of the community is a superior often called the abbess, appointed for life by the chapter, at least outside Italy, for in Italy, and especially in the two Sicilies, the constitution "Exposcit debitum" (1 January, 1583) of Gregory XIII requires that hey should be re-elected every three years (see "Periodicade Religiosis", n. 420, vol. A council should at once be appointed if there is none already existing (cf. Their vows are publicly accepted by superiors in the name of the Church and solemn. Nuns of the old orders without solemn vows The bishop approves the constitutions only in so far as they are in accordance with the rules approved by the Holy See. The admission is made by the chapter, but, before the clothing, and also before the solemn profession, it is the duty of the bishop, by himself or (if he is prevented) by his vicar-general or some person delegated by either of them, to inquire into the question of the candidate's religious vocation, and especially as to her freedom of choice. 2, n. 13). ad Constant. This taking of vows is not holy orders, which is the reception of the priesthood. She participates in all the indulgences and spiritual privileges of those who have taken their solemn vows; and although the solemnly professed take precedence, once the solemn profession is made, the seniority is regulated by the date of simple profession, without regard to any delay in proceeding to solemn profession. // . This rigorous enclosure usual in the East, was imposed on all nuns in the West, first by bishops and particular councils, and afterwards by the Holy See. Friars are further divided into Friars Minor Conventual and Friars Minor Capuchin. Some of the orders which traditionally practice papal cloister are: Carmelite Nuns, Poor Clares, Dominican Nuns, Visitandines, Holy Spirit Adoration Sisters, and Handmaids of the Precious Blood. After the ballot he declares the election valid, and announces the result. 2, 66), and it forbids superiors to interfere unasked in questions of conscience. The approbation for one monastery is not valid for another. The candidate must provide a dowry of at least two hundred crowns unless the founder consents to accept a smaller sum. According to the same letter, the Visitandines with solemn vows must pass five years of simple vows before proceeding to solemn profession (Bizzarri, "Collectanea", 1st ed., 778-91). The Catholic Encyclopedia. The ordinary confessor cannot be a religious except for monasteries of the same order as himself; and in that case the extraordinary confessor cannot belong to the same order. About this page 2, 128 sqq.). In her administration the treasurer must be guided by the complicated rules of the recent instruction "inter ca" of 30 July, 1909, which refer especially to pecuniary engagements. No house can be established without his consent. There are many Religious Orders though out the world. The president collects the votes at the grating. Contact information. The secretary general keeps the minutes of proceedings, and has charge of the archives. The bishop presides and confirms all elections, and has the right to require an account of the temporal administration. The bishop presides over the ballot, except in the case of nuns subject to regulars, and he has always the right to be present at the election. Benedict XIV, by his Bull "Pastoralis" of 5 August, 1748, insisted on the appointment of a confessor extraordinary, and also on the provision of facilities for sick nuns. Boniface VII (1294-1309) by his constitution "Periculoso", inserted in Canon Law [c. un, De statu regularium, in VI (III, 16)] made it an inviolable law for all professed nuns; and the Council of Trent (sess. Mercy of the Americas, Sisters of (RSM) Mission, Congregation of the (CM) Monks of Adoration. From the earliest times they were called the spouses of Christ, according to St. Athanasius, the custom of the Church ("Apol. Transcription. Each community has a rule of life and is committed to prayer, life in community, and hospitality. The education of young girls alone was permitted to them, and that under somewhat inconvenient conditions. If there are no provinces, the general chapter includes (besides those mentioned above) all superiors of houses containing more than twelve nuns, accompanied by one religious under perpetual vows elected by all the professed sisters (including those under temporary vows) of such houses. Monasteries not exempt are subject to the jurisdiction of the bishop; exempt monasteries are placed, some under the immediate authority of the Holy See, others under that of a regular First Order. The government of the congregations is vested in the general chapter, and in the superior general assisted by a council with certain rights reserved to the bishops, under protection and supreme direction of the Sacred Congregation of Religious. It, along with Matrimony, is directed toward the salvation of others. (1911). The candidate must provide a dowry of at least two hundred crowns unless the founder consents to accept a smaller sum. Diocesan congregations have the bishop as their first superior. St. Pius V took more radical measures by his constitution "Circa pastoralis", of 25 May, 1566. Even admission to the grated parlor is not free, and interviews with regulars are subject to stringent rules. Benedict founded the abbey of Monte Cassino in Italy about 540, although technically he did not begin a separate order. Monasteries following the Benedictine Rule spread to England, much of Europe, then to North and South America. There were, however, common houses, one wing being set apart for women and the other for men, more frequently adjoining houses for the two sexes. With certain exceptions, the dowry of choir sisters cannot be dispensed with; it must be paid before the clothing, and invested in some safe and profitable manner. By making a formal, public profession of solemn vows (the evangelical counsels of poverty, chastity, and obedience) a nun promises to live as a consecrated religious for the rest of her life. VARIOUS KINDS OF NUNS. . In many cases especially when there is a question of modifying the constitutions, the permission and confirmation of the Holy See are required. //]]> . The Holy See permits, though it does not make obligatory, the division of a community into choir sisters or teaching sisters, and lay sisters. Before it can spread into another diocese, a diocesan congregation must have the consent of the bishop to whom it is subject, and often by agreement among bishops a real superiority is reserved to the bishop of the diocese of origin. The less important houses are grouped among themselves for this election, or annexed to a principal house. The Holy See, by its Regulations (Normae) of 28 June, 1901, declares that it does not approve of congregations whose object is to render certain services in seminaries or colleges for male pupils, or to teach children or young people of both sexes; and it disapproves their undertaking the direct care of young infants, or lying-in women. The same decree gives to confessors the exclusive right of regulating the communions of the nuns, who have the privilege of communicating daily since the decree "Sacra Tridentina" of 20 December, 1905 (see "Periodicade Religiosis", n. 110, vol. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York. XXV De Reg., c. x), a confessor extraordinary should visit the monastery two or three times a year. Vermeersch, A. If there are no provinces, the general chapter includes (besides those mentioned above) all superiors of houses containing more than twelve nuns, accompanied by one religious under perpetual vows elected by all the professed sisters (including those under temporary vows) of such houses. In the West under the discipline in force for several centuries, these oblates were considered as bound for life by the offering made by their parents. Unless forbidden by the bishop, the superior may permit the execution of such instruments as are necessary for the purpose. 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